Laser Cladding Process Diagram

 

Laser cladding is a deposit overlay technology which uses a high power industrial laser to melt / weld material onto a substrate creating an overlay with true metallurgical bonding.

 

A broad range of cladding materials and substrate combinations are possible, adding local value to base material such as:

 

  • Chemical and corrosion protection.
  • Wear and tear protection.
  • Repair or refurbishment of worn, damaged or mis-machined components.

 

Laser Cladding – Advantages

Metallurgical bond vs. mechanical bond of thermally sprayed layers Low dilution with the substrate material, typical about 4 – 7% (approx. 1/3 of PTA process)

  • Highly controllable/repeatable and efficient process
  • Smooth clad with very low porosity resulting in less post-machining in comparison with other welding overlay techniques
  • Small heat effected zone, less part distortion (approx. 50% of PTA process)
  • High quench rates => finer grain structure => higher corrosion potentials
  • Deposit efficiency (DE) close to 100% Vs. 20 up to 70% with thermal spray
  • Alternative Technologies: PTA, HVOF, Thermal Spray, Submerged Arc

 

Laser Cladding – Variables

 

Types of Base Material:

Carbon-manganese, alloy, stainless and tool steel, copper

 

Cladding Material Alloys:

Cobalt, iron, nickel alloys, martensitic stainless steel and tungsten carbide, bronze

 

Type of Cladding process:
Gas fed powder cladding, Gravity powder cladding, Hotwire cladding

 

Size of Cladding Material:

​Powder, typical PTA cut -70 to +250 mesh (44 to 210 micron).
Hotwire typical welding diameter of 1,2-1,6 mm (solid or cored)

 

Powder Feed Rate:

2.7 – 12 kg/h

 

Laser Power:
1 to 10 kW typical

 

Size of Beam Shape (power density):
1 x 12 mm or 6 x 24 mm (line source laser)

 

Process Speed:
0.35 – 2 m/min

 

Clad Thickness (single pass):
0.30 – 2.0 mm

 

Delivery and Cover Gas:
Argon, helium or argon/helium mix

 

Substrate Temperature:
Substrate preheat is sometimes required to prevent