Laser cladding is a deposit overlay technology which uses a high power industrial laser to melt / weld material onto a substrate creating an overlay with true metallurgical bonding.
A broad range of cladding materials and substrate combinations are possible, adding local value to base material such as:
- Chemical and corrosion protection.
- Wear and tear protection.
- Repair or refurbishment of worn, damaged or mis-machined components.
Laser Cladding – Advantages
Metallurgical bond vs. mechanical bond of thermally sprayed layers Low dilution with the substrate material, typical about 4 – 7% (approx. 1/3 of PTA process)
- Highly controllable/repeatable and efficient process
- Smooth clad with very low porosity resulting in less post-machining in comparison with other welding overlay techniques
- Small heat effected zone, less part distortion (approx. 50% of PTA process)
- High quench rates => finer grain structure => higher corrosion potentials
- Deposit efficiency (DE) close to 100% Vs. 20 up to 70% with thermal spray
- Alternative Technologies: PTA, HVOF, Thermal Spray, Submerged Arc
Laser Cladding – Variables
Types of Base Material:
Carbon-manganese, alloy, stainless and tool steel, copper
Cladding Material Alloys:
Cobalt, iron, nickel alloys, martensitic stainless steel and tungsten carbide, bronze
Type of Cladding process:
Gas fed powder cladding, Gravity powder cladding, Hotwire cladding
Size of Cladding Material:
Powder, typical PTA cut -70 to +250 mesh (44 to 210 micron).
Hotwire typical welding diameter of 1,2-1,6 mm (solid or cored)
Powder Feed Rate:
2.7 – 12 kg/h
1 to 10 kW typical
Size of Beam Shape (power density):
1 x 12 mm or 6 x 24 mm (line source laser)
0.35 – 2 m/min
Clad Thickness (single pass):
0.30 – 2.0 mm
Delivery and Cover Gas:
Argon, helium or argon/helium mix
Substrate preheat is sometimes required to prevent