Laser Cladding Process Diagram


Laser cladding is a deposit overlay technology which uses a high power industrial laser to melt / weld material onto a substrate creating an overlay with true metallurgical bonding.


A broad range of cladding materials and substrate combinations are possible, adding local value to base material such as:


  • Chemical and corrosion protection.
  • Wear and tear protection.
  • Repair or refurbishment of worn, damaged or mis-machined components.


Laser Cladding – Advantages

Metallurgical bond vs. mechanical bond of thermally sprayed layers Low dilution with the substrate material, typical about 4 – 7% (approx. 1/3 of PTA process)

  • Highly controllable/repeatable and efficient process
  • Smooth clad with very low porosity resulting in less post-machining in comparison with other welding overlay techniques
  • Small heat effected zone, less part distortion (approx. 50% of PTA process)
  • High quench rates => finer grain structure => higher corrosion potentials
  • Deposit efficiency (DE) close to 100% Vs. 20 up to 70% with thermal spray
  • Alternative Technologies: PTA, HVOF, Thermal Spray, Submerged Arc


Laser Cladding – Variables


Types of Base Material:

Carbon-manganese, alloy, stainless and tool steel, copper


Cladding Material Alloys:

Cobalt, iron, nickel alloys, martensitic stainless steel and tungsten carbide, bronze


Type of Cladding process:
Gas fed powder cladding, Gravity powder cladding, Hotwire cladding


Size of Cladding Material:

​Powder, typical PTA cut -70 to +250 mesh (44 to 210 micron).
Hotwire typical welding diameter of 1,2-1,6 mm (solid or cored)


Powder Feed Rate:

2.7 – 12 kg/h


Laser Power:
1 to 10 kW typical


Size of Beam Shape (power density):
1 x 12 mm or 6 x 24 mm (line source laser)


Process Speed:
0.35 – 2 m/min


Clad Thickness (single pass):
0.30 – 2.0 mm


Delivery and Cover Gas:
Argon, helium or argon/helium mix


Substrate Temperature:
Substrate preheat is sometimes required to prevent